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About The City

      Varanasi is one of the oldest living cities in the world. Many names have been given to Varanasi, though its recently revived official appellation is mentioned in the Mahabharata and in the Jataka tales of Buddhism. It probably derives from the two rivers that flank the city, the Varana to the north and the Asi to the south.. Many still use the anglicized forms of Banaras or Benares, while pilgrims refer to Kash, first used three thousand years ago to describe the kingdom and the city outside which the Buddha preached his first sermon; the "City of Light" is also called Kashika, "the shining one", referring to the light of Shiva. Another epithet, Avimukta, meaning "Never Forsaken", refers to the city that Shiva never deserted, or that one should never leave. Further alternatives include Anandavana, the "forest of bliss", and Rudravasa, the place where Shiva (Rudra) resides.

      Varanasi’s associations with Shiva extend to the beginning of time: legends relate how, after his marriage to Parvati, Shiva left his Himalyan abode and came to reside in Kashi with all the gods in attendance. Temporarily banished during the rule of the great king Divodasa, Shiva sent Brahma and Vishnu as his emissaries, but ultimately returned to his rightful abode protected by his loyal attendants Kalabhairav and Dandapani. Over 350 gods and goddesses, including a protective ring of Ganeshaa form a mandala or sacred pattern with Shiva Vishwanatha at its centre.

      Each name carries an additional meaning in terms of the sacred symbolism of the city, with each defining aprogressively decreasing arc starting and ending on the west bank of the Ganges. While the boundary of Kashi is delimited by the circular Panchakroshi Road, Varanasi is the main city, extending from Asi Ghat and circling around to the confluence of the Ganges and the Varana. Yet a smaller area, defined as Avimukta, starts at Kedara Ghat in the south and ends at Trilochana Ghat. Most important of all is Antargriha, the "Inner Sanctum" around the Vishwanatha Temple, which encompasses Dashashwamedha Ghat, Surya Kund, the lingam of Bharabhuta, and Manikarnika Ghat. Another, later, interpretation suggests three sectors of khandas in the form of Shiva’s trident, each centered around a temple – Omkara to the north, Vishvanatha in the centre and Kendra to the south.

      A city which, since it is both an exalted place of pilgrimage and an idealize centre of faith, has been likened to Jerusalem and Mecca.According to the historians, the city was founded some ten centuries before the birth of Christ. The city is mentioned in Holy Scriptures like 'Vamana Purana', Buddhist texts and in the epic 'Mahabharata'.Mark Twain,the English author and litterateur,who was enthralled by the legend and sanctity of Banaras,once wrote:"Banaras is older than history,older than tradition,older even than legend and looks twice as old as all of them put together."

      Varanasi's prominence in Hindu mythology is virtually unrivalled. For the devout Hindu the city has always had a special place, besides being a pilgrimage centre,it is considered especially auspicious to die here, ensuring an instant route to heaven.The revered and ancient city Varanasi is the religious centre of the world of Hindus. A city where the past and present, eternity and continuity co-exist.

      The city of Banaras is situated on the west bank of the holiest of all Indian rivers, the Ganga or Ganges. The relationship between the sacred river and the city is the essence of Varanasi - 'the land of sacred light'. The Ganga is believed to have flown from heaven to wash away the worldly sins of the human race.of mortal's .The life and activities in the city centre around the holy river. Life on the banks of the Ganga begins before dawn when thousands of pilgrims - men, women and children - come down to the river to wait for the rising sun when immersion in the sacred river will cleanse them of their sufferings and wash their sins away.

      Along the water's edge, there are the burning ghats. The most sacred one is Manikarnika, associated with Goddess Parvati, Lord Shiva's wife. The major shrine is the Vishwanath Temple the abode of Lord Shiva, the most important of the trinity, Brahma, Vishnu and Maheshwara, the Lords of this universe. Around this temple evolved the spiritual identity of Varanasi .The holy city within Banaras is thus called, Kashi, the luminous one or the city of the light.

      It is beside the holy waters of the Ganga that the activities for which Banaras is held sacred are performed. Everyday thousands of residents and pilgrims bathe, offer prayers to the elements, to the rising sun, and to their dead ancestors who have been carried away by these waters. What draws people to the river is an ingrained belief that these waters can absolve the sins of many generations.

      Everyone has their own way of celebrating the ritual contact with the holy Ganga: some bathe; other dip themselves entirely into the water once, thrice or any number of times; some drink the water; other make water offerings to the sun; while others fill their pots with holy water to take back to their homes to perform rituals and purification.The offerings to the sacred waters vary. Pilgrims give flowers, fruits, lamps and their respectful prayers. On festival days and religious occasions the riverside is thick with their colorful bobbing up and down on the waters.

      The land around Banaras is also held sacred since Shiva is believed to have lived here.There are thousands of temples at Benaras dedicated to different gods and goddesses, particularly to the deities of good fortune and prosperity-and to the sun and the planets. The most important are those that honor the diverse manifestations and attributes of Shiva.The major shrine at Banaras is the Vishvanatha Temple, devoted to Shiva, the Lord of the Universe.

      The appearance of the pillar of light is said to have occurred at the site of Vishvanatha Temple. The holy city within Banaras is thus called Kashi "The Luminous One' or the 'City of Light'. Light in Hindu philosophy has great meaning for it exemplifies the wisdom that destroys the darkness of ignorance. Sin and evil are understood to be the acts of ignorance. When wisdom is acquired, evil will disappear. Sin cannot be washed away by water or prayer but only by wisdom. Immorality is also reached through wisdom and understanding. So the City of Light is the City of Eternal Wisdom as well. To die in the city beside the river of life is to die with a promise of redemption, a promise to be liberated from the endless cycle of life and death and reincarnation, and to gain moksha or eternal absolution. So for centuries thousands of people have come to Banaras to die and thousands have brought the ashes of the dead here to immerse them in the holy waters.

      Banaras has always been associated with philosophy and wisdom. A place of learning for many years, the Banaras Hindu University carries on this tradition. The University campus, to the south of the city, was built at the beginning of this century. Pundit Madan Mohan Malviya was instrumental in founding it. On campus is the Bharat Kala Bhavan Museum, which originated from the private collection of Rai Krishnadasa.

The Banaras region was administered by Hindu rulers for several hundred years until the 17th century, when it fell into the hands of the Mughals. As was the practice many buildings of the previous rulers and the religious structures of the Hindu and Buddhists were demolished during the wars of the conquest.

In Banaras we find many places where a temple once stood and where now mosque or some other structure stands. However, there is a little known farman, or royal decree, in the Bharat Kala Bhavan museum, which claims that Aurangzeb, the last great Mughal ruler, ordered his administrators to abstain from destroying any more temples. In succeeding years as Banaras continued to grow, the temples that were destroyed, were rebuilt or relocated.

Since Banaras is a pilgrimage centre, revered and honored throughout India, pilgrims come from all parts of the country to visit it. Some travel 2,000 kilometers to bathe in the Ganga and to honor their dead. Earlier pilgrims used to walk to Banaras on foot, and along the way visited other pilgrimages.The antiquity of Banaras is known not just by the archeological remains but by the diverse and varied literature of India.

The inflow of pilgrims developed Banaras as a trade centre. Besides traders, crafts people also settled in Banaras. Today the city is renowned for its silk weavers, who prepare the finest types of woven silk fabrics. A Banaras silk sari or shawl is traditionally a single colored textile with motifs and patterns woven in gold or silver threads. The technique is intricate, the procedure complex and demands great expertise .As the warp and the weft are interwoven on the loom, small ,often minute shuttles with gold thread are introduced to form the motif. When the design of the motif is completed, a knot is made and the gold thread cut. The weaving continues until the next design. The smaller the motif or the more intricate the design, the more complex the weaving skills required.

Silk weaving in Banaras is a cottage industry and in many areas of the city, especially the Muslim quarters, one can see looms at work all day . Entire families are involved, Children often pick up the art from the elders at an early age. There are shops in Banaras, and throughout India, that sell these fine silk fabrics.


Area : 73.89 sq. km.

Population : 1322248 (1991 census)

Altitude : 80.71 mtrs. above sea level

Season : October – March

Clothing : Summer - Cottons; Winters - Woolens

Language : Hindi and English

Festivals : Shivratri, Dussehra, Ganga Festival, Bharat Milap, Dhrupad Mela, Hanumat Jayanti, Nakkatyya Chetganj, Nag Nathaiya Panch Kroshi Parikrama.

Local Transport : Buses, Cycle-rickshaws, Auto-rickshaws

STD Code : 0542



      The nearest airport is Babatpur, 22 km from Varanasi and 30 Km from Sarnath. Diect flight for Varanasi are available from Delhi, Agra, Khajurao, Calcutta, Mumbai, Lucknow and Bhuvaneshwar airport.


      Varanasi and Mughal Sarai (one of the main railway stations of Varanasi) are the important rail junctions, with train connections to all major cities of India. Some important trains are : Rajdhani Exp ( Hawrah - Mughal Sarai - New Delhi); Toofan Exp ( Howrah - Mughal Sarai - Delhi); North East Superfast Exp ( Delhi - Mughal Sarai Guwahati) ; Magadh Exp ( Delhi - Mughal Sarai Patna) ; Mahanagari Exp ( Varanasi - Mumbai ) ; Pawan Exp ( Varanasi - Mumbai ) ; Sabarmati Exp ( Varanasi - Ahmedabad) ; Ganga Kaveri Exp ( Varanasi - Chennai) ; Poorwa Exp ( Howrah - Varanasi - Delhi) Himgiri Exp ( Jammu - Varanasi - Howrah ) ; Sealdah Exp ( Varanasi - Jammu Tawi).


      Varanasi, on NH 2 from Calcutta to Delhi, NHZ to Kanya Kumari and NH 29 to Gorakhpur is well connected to the rest of the country by good motorable roads. some of the major road distances are : Agra - 565 km, Allahabad - 128 km, Bhopal - 791 km, Bodhgaya - 240 km, Kanpur - 330 km, Khajuraho - 405 km, Lucknow - 286, Patna - 246 km, Sarnath - 10 Km

Place Of Interest

River Front ( Ghats)

      The great river banks at Varanasi, built high with eighteenth and nineteenth-century pavilions and palaces, temples and terraces, are lined with an endless chain of stone steps – the ghats – progressing along the whole of the waterfront, altering in appearance with the dramatic seasonal fluctuations of the river level. Each of the hundred ghats, big and small, is marked by a lingam, and occupies its own special place in the religious geography of the city. Some have crumbled over the years, others continue to thrive, with early-morning bathers, brahmin priests offering puja, and people practicing meditation and yoga. Hindus puja, and people practicing meditation and yoga. Hindus regard the Ganges as amrita, the elixir of life, which brings purity to the living and salvation to the dead; sceptical outsiders tend to focus on all-persuasive and extreme lack of hygiene. Ashes to the dead, emissions from open drains and the left-overs from religious rites float by the devout as they go about their bathing and ceremonial cleansing.

      For centuries, pilgrims have traced the perimeter of the city by a ritual circumambulation , paying homage to shrines on the way. Among the most popular routes is the Panchatirthi Yatra, which takes in the Pancha, (five) Trithi (crossing) of Asi, Dashashwamedha, Adi Keshva, Panchganga and finally Manikarnika. To gain merit or appease the gods, the devotee, accompanied by a panda (priest), recites a sankalpa (statement of intent) and performs a ritual at each stage of the journey. For the casual visitor, however the easiest way to see the is to follow a south-north sequence either by boat or on foot.

Asi Ghat to Kedara Ghat

      At the clay-banked Asi Ghat, the southernmost in the sacred city, at the confluence of the Asi and the Ganges, pilgrims bathe prior to worshipping at a huge lingam under a peepal tree. Another lingam visited is that of Asisangameshvara, the "Lord of the Confluence of the Asi", in a small marble temple just off the ghat. Traditionally, pilgrims continued to Lolarka Kund, the Trembling Sun", a rectangular tank fifteen metres blow ground level, approached by steep steps. Now almost abandoned, except during the Lolarka Mela fair (Aug/Sept), when thousands come to propitiate the gods and pray for the birth of a son, Lolarka Kund is among Varanasi’s earliest sites, one of only two remaining Sun sites linked with the origins of Hinduism. Equated with the twelve adityas or divisions of the sun, which predate the great deities of Modern Hinduism, it was attracting bathers in the days of the buddha.

      Much of the adjacent Tulsi Ghat – originally Lolarka Ghat, but renamed in the honour of the poet Tulsidas, who lived nearby in the sixteenth century – has crumbled. Continuing north, above Shivala Ghat, hanuman Ghat is the site of a new temple built by the ghat’s large south Indian community. Considered by many to be the birth place of the fifteenth-century Vaishnavite saint Vallabha, who was instrumental in in the resurgence of the worship of Krishna, the ghat also features a striking image of Ruru, the dog Bhairava, a ferocious and early form of Shiva.

      Named for a legendary king said to have almost lost everything in a fit of self-abnegation, Harishchandra Ghat, one of the Varanasi’s two cremation of burning ghats, is easily recognizable from the smoke of its funeral pyres.

      Further north, the busy Kendra Ghat is ignored by pilgrims on the Panchatirthi Yatra. Above its steps, a red-and-white-striped temple houses the Kedareshvara lingam, an outcrop of black rock shot through with a vein of white. Mythologically related to Kedarnath in the Himalayas, Kedara and its ghat become a hive of activity during the sacred month of Sravana (July/Aug), the month of the rains.

Chauki Ghat to Chaumsathi Ghat

      Northwards along the river, Chauki Ghat is distinguished by an enormous tree that shelters small stones shrines to the nagas, water-snake deities, while at the unmistakable Dhobi (Laundrymen’s) Ghat clothes are still rhythmically pulverized in the pursuit of purity. Past smaller ghats such as Mansarovar Ghat, named after the holy lake in Tibet, and Narada Ghat, honouring the divine musician and sage, lies Chaumsathi Ghat, where impressive stone steps lead up to the small temple of the Chaumsathi (64) Yoginis. Images of Kali and Durga in its inner sanctum represent a stage in the emergence of the great goddess as a single representation of a number of female divinities. Overlooking the ghats here is Peshwa Amrit Rao’s majestic sandstone haveli (mansion), built in 1807 and currently used for religious ceremonies and occasionally, as an auditorium for concerts.

Dashashwamedha Ghat

      Dashashwamedha Ghat, the second and business of the five tirthas on the Panchatirthi Yatra, lies past the plain, flat-roofed building that houses the shrine of Shitala. Extremely popular, even in the rainy season when devotees have to wade to the temple or take a boat, Shitala represents both both benign and malevolent aspects – ease and succour as well as disease, particularly smallpox.

      Dashashwamedha is Varanasi’s most popular and accessible bathing ghat, with rows of pandas sitting on wooden platforms under bamboo umbrellas, masseurs plying their trade and boatmen jostling for custom. Its name, "ten horse sacrifices", derives from a complex series of sacrifices performed by Brahma to test King Divodasa: Shiva and Parvati were sure the king’s resolve would fail, and he would be compelled to leave Kashi, thereby allowing them to return to their city. However, the sacrifices were so perfect that Brahma established the Brahmeshvara lingam here. Since that time, Dashashwamedha has become one of the most celebrated tirthas on earth, where pilgrims can reap the benefits of the huge sacrifice merely by bathing.

Man Mandir Ghat to Lalita Ghat

      Man Mandir Ghat is known primarily for its magnificent eighteenth-century observatory, equipped with ornate window casings, and built for the Maharajah of Jaipur. Pilgrims pay homage to the important lingam of Someshvara, the lord of the moon, alongside, before crossing Tripurabhairavi Ghat to Mir Ghat and the New Vishwanatha Temple, built by conservative brahmins who claimed that the main Vishwanatha lingam was rendered impure when Harijans (untouchables) entered the sanctum in 1956. Mir Ghat also has a shrine to Vaishalakshi, the Wide-Eyed Goddess, on an important pitha – a site marking the place where various parts of the disintegrating body of Shakti fell as it was carried by the grief-stricken Shiva. Also here is the Dharma Kupa, the Well of Dharma, surrounded by subsidiary shrines and the lingam over all the dead of the world – except here in Varanasi.

      Immediately to the north is Lalita Ghat, renowned for its ganga Keshava shrine to Vishnu and the Nepali Temple, a typical Kathmandu-style wooden temple which houses an image of Pashupateshvara – Shiva’s manifestation at Pashupatinath, in the Mathmandu Valley – and sports a small selection of erotic carvings.

Manikarnika Ghat

      North of Lalita lies Varanasi’s pre-eminent cremation ground, Manikarnika Ghat. Such grounds are usually held to be inauspicious, and located on the fringes of cities, but the entire city of Shiva is regarded as Mahashmashana, the Great Cremation Ground for the corpse of the entire universe. The ghat is perpetually crowded with funeral parties, as well as the Doms, its Untouchable guardians, busy and pre-occupied with facilitating final release for those lucky enough to pass away here. Seeing bodies being cremated so publicly has always exerted a great fascination for visitors to the city, but photography is strictly taboo; even having a camera visible may be constructed as intent, and provoke hostility.

      Lying at the centre of the five tirthas, manikarnika Ghat symbolizes both creation and destruction, epitomized by the juxtaposition of the sacred well of Manikarnika Kund, said to have been dug by Vishnu at the time of creation, and the hot, sandy ash-infused soil of cremation grounds where time comes to an end. In Hindu mythology, Manikarnika Kund predates the arrival of the Ganga and has its source deep in the Himalayas. Vishnu cared the kund with his discus, and filled it with perspiration from his exertions in creating the world, at the behest of Shiva. When Shiva quivered with delighted, his earning fell into this pool, which as manikarnika – "Jewelled Earring" – became the first tirthas in the world. Every yea, after the floodwaters of the river have receded to leave the pool caked in alluvial deposits, the kund is re-dug. Its surroundings are cleaned and painted with brightly coloured folk art, which depicts the presiding goddess, Manikarnika Devi, inviting pilgrims to bathe and worship at its small Vishnu shrine, and at the paduka (footprint) of Vishnu set in marble on the embankment of the ghat. The most important of the lingams is the remains of Tarakeshvara, Shiva as Lord of Taraka mantra, a "prayer of the crossing" recited at death.

      Strictly speaking, Manikarnika is the name given to the kund and to the ghat, while the constantly busy cremation ground is Jalasi Ghat, dominated by a dark smoke-stained temple built by Queen Ahalya Bai Holkar of Indore in the eighteenth century.

Scindia Ghat

      Bordering Manikarnika to the north is the picturesque Scindia Ghat, with its titled Shiva temple lying partially submerged in the river, having fallen in as a result of the sheer weight of the ghat’s construction around 150 years ago. Above the ghat, several of Kashi’s most influential shrines are hidden within the tight maze of alleyways of the area known as Siddha Kshetra (the field of Fulfilment). Vireshvara, the Lord of all Heroes, is especially propitiated in prayer for a son; the Lord of Fire, Agni, was supposed to have been born here.

Panchganga Ghat to Adi Keshva Ghat

      Beyond Lakshmanbala Ghat, with its commanding views of the river. Lies one of the most dramatic and controversial ghats, Panchganga Ghat, dominated by Varanasi’s largest riverside building, the great mosque of Alamgir, known locally as Beni Madhav-ka-Darera. With its minarets now much shortened, the mosque stands on the ruins of what must have been one of the city’s greatest temples, Bindu Madhava, a huge Vishnu temple that extended from Panchganga to Rama Ghat before it was destroyed by Aurangzeb and replaced by an impressive mosque. Panchganga also bears testimony to more favourable Hindu-Muslim relations, being the site of the initiation of the medieval saint of the Sufi-Sant tradition, Kabir, the son of a humble Muslim weaver who is venerated by Hindus and Muslims alike. Along the river front lies a curious array of three-sided cells, submerged during the rainy season, some with lingams, others with images of Vishnu, and some empty and used for meditation or yoga. One of these is a shrine to the Five (panch) Rivers (ganga) which, according to legend, have their confluence here: the two symbolic rivulets of Dhutapapa (Cleansed of Sin) and the Kirana (Sun’s Ray), which join the mythical confluence of the Yamuna and the Yamuna and the Sarasvati with the Ganga.

      Above Trilochana Ghat, further north, is the holy ancient lingam of the Three (tri) Eye (lochana) Shiva. Beyond it, the river bypasses some of Varanasi’s oldest precincts, now predominantly Muslim in character; the ghats themselves gradually become less impressive and are usually of the kaccha (clay-banked) variety.

      At Adi Keshava Ghat (the "Original Vishnu"), on the outskirts of the city, the Varana flows into the Ganga. Unapproachable during the rainy season, when it is completely submerged, it marks the place where Vishnu first landed as an emissary of Shiva, and stands on the original site of the city before it spread southwards; around Adi Keshva are a number of Ganesha shrine.

Vishwanatha Khanda

      The Old City at the heart of Varanasi, between Dashashwamedha Ghat and Godaulia to the south and west and Manikarnika Ghat on the river to the north, lies Vishwanatha Khanda, sometimes referred to as the Old City. The whole area rewards exploration, with numerous shrines and lingams tucked into every corner, and buzzing with the activity of pilgrims, pandas and stalls selling offerings to the faithful.

      Approached through a maze of narrow alleys and the Vishwanatha Gali (or Lane), the temple complex of Vishwanatha or Visheshwara, the "Lord of All", is popularly known as the Golden Temple, due to the massive gold plating on its shikhara (spire). Inside the compound - which is hidden behind a wall, and entered through an unassuming doorway - is one of India's most important shivalingams, made of smooth black stone and seated in a solid silver plinth, as well as shrines to the wrathful protectors Mahakala and Dandapani, and the lingam of Avimukteshvara, the Lord of the Unforsaken, which predates Vishwanatha and once held much greater significance. The current temple was built in 1777 by Queen Ahalya Bai Holkar of Indore, and is closed to non-Hindus, who have to make do with glimpses from adjacent buildings.

      Vishwanatha's history has been fraught Sacked by successive Muslim rulers, the temple was repeatedly rebuilt, until the grand edifice begun in 1585 by Todar Mal, a courtier of the tolerant Moghul Akbar, was finally destroyed by Aurangzeb. On its foundations, guarded by armed police to protect it from Hindu fanatics, stands the Jnana Vapi Mosque, also known as the Great Mosque of Aurangzeb. Its simple white domes tower over the Jnana Vapi (Wisdom Well), immediately north, housed in an open arcaded hall built in 1828, where Shiva cooled his lingam after the construction of Vishwanatha. Covered by a grate to prevent people jumping in, in search of instant moksha, and covered with a cloth to stop coins being thrown in, only the presiding brahmins have access to its waters, considered to be liquid knowledge.

      Pilgrims offer their sankalpa or statement of intent here, before commencing the Panchatirthi Yatra. Slightly north, across the main road, the thirteenth-century Razia's Mosque stands atop the ruins of a still earlier Vishwanatha temple, destroyed under the Sultanate.

      Close by, the temple of Annapurna Bhavani is dedicated to the supreme Shakti ("She, the Being of Plenteous Food"), the queen and divine mother also known in this benevolent form as Mother of the Three Worlds. As the provider of sustenance, she carries a cooking pot rather than the fearsome weapons borne by her horrific forms Durga and Kali a subsidiary shrine opened only three days a year houses a solid gold image of Annapurna. Nearby is a stunning image, faced in silver against a black surround, of Shani or Saturn. Anyone whose fortunes fall under his shadow is stricken with bad luck - a fate devotees try to escape by worshipping here on Saturdays.

The Kashi Vishwanath Temple

      Also known as the Golden Temple, it is dedicated to Lord Shiva, the presiding deity of the city. Varanasi is said to be the point at which the first jyotirlinga, the fiery pillar of light by which Shiva manifested his supremacy over other gods, broke through the earth’s crust and flared towards the heavens. More than the Ghats and even the Ganga, the Shivalinga installed in the temple remains the devotional focus of Varanasi. Entry restricted for foreigners.

Gyanvapi Mosque

      The Gyanvapi Mosque was raised by Aurangzeb near the present Vishwanath Temple or the Golden Temple.

Bharat Mata

      About 3km west of Godaulia, outside the old city, the modern temple of Bharat Mata(Mother India), inaugurated by Mahatma Gandhi, is unusual in that it has a huge relief map in marble of the whole of the Indian subcontinent and the Tibetan plateau, with mountains, rivers and the holy tirthas all clearly visible. Pilgrims circumambulate the map before viewing it in its entirety from the second floor. The temple can be reached by rickshaw from Godaulia for around Rs7.

Durga Temple

      The nineteenth-century Durga Temple - stained red with ochre, and known among foreign travellers as the Monkey Temple, thanks to the aggressive and irritable monkeys that occupy every nook and cranny - stands within a walled enclosure 8km southof Godaulia, not far from Asi Ghat It was built in a common north Indian style, with an ornate shikhara, consisting of five segments symbolizing the elements, and supported by finely carved columns. The whole ensemble is best seen from across Durga Kund, the adjoining tank. Permeated by a stark primeval atmosphere, it is devoted to Durga, the tertitying aspect of Shiva's consort, Parvati, and the embodiment of shakti or female power. In contrast to the benevolent Annapurna, Durga, the unassailable destroyer of demons, clad in red and riding a tiger, is fully armed with Shiva's trident, Vishnu's discus and a sword. A forked stake in the courtyard is used during festivals to behead sacrificial goats, in an early or pre-Hindu form of worship which has now generally been replaced by a symbolic mark in vermilion.

      Non-Hindus are admitted to the courtyard, but not the inner sanctum, of the Durga temple, but access to the Tulsi Manas Temple alongside is unrestricted (daily 5am-noon & 3pm-midnight). Built in 1964 of whitestreiked marble, its walls are inscribed with verses by the poet and author of the Ramcharitmanas, the Hindi equivalent of the great Sanskrit epic Ramayana. On the second floor, moving images bring to life episodes from the classics.Commonly called the ‘Monkey temple’, it was built in the 18th century.

Tulsi Manas Temple

      Constructed by a family of Varanasi, this modern temple is dedicated to Lord Rama. . It is situated at the place where Tulsidas, the great medieval seer, lived and wrote the great epic " Shri Ramcharitmanas", which narrates the life of Lord Rama, the hero of the Ramayana. Verses from Tulsidas’s epic are inscribed on the walls.

Bharat Kala Bhawan (Banaras Hindu University)

      A short rickshaw ride from the Durga temple is the Banaras Hindu University, one of the oldest educational centres in India. Founded by Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya as a centre for the study of Indian art, culture, music and Sanskrit. Within the campus is the Bharat Kala Bhawan, a museum which houses one of the finest collection of Mughal miniature paintings and brocade textiles. Open 10.30 A.M. to 4.30 P.M.
Closed on University holidays.the Bharat Kala Bhavan museum (daily except Sun; llam-4.3Opm, May & June 7.30am-12.30pm; Rs5, RslO camera) has a fabulous collection of miniature paintings, sculpture, contemporary art and bronzes. Dedicated to the city of Varanasi, a gallery with a running nineteenth century map has a display of the recent Raj Ghat excavations and old etchings of the city. Along with Buddhist and Hindu sculpture and Moghul glass, galleries are devoted to foreign artists who found inspiration in India, such as Nicholas Roerich and Alice Boner. Jamini Roy, the Bengali renaissance painter so influenced by folk art, is also well represented.

      Bharat Kala Bhavan forms part of BNU, the campus of which also holds the New Vishwanatha Temple (daily 4am-noon & 1-9pm), distinguished by its lofty white marble shikhara. The brainchild of Pandit Malaviya, founder of the university and a great believer in an egalitarian and casteless Hindu revival, it was built by the Birias, a wealthy Marwari industrial family. Although supposedly modelled on the original temple destroyed by Aurangzeb, the building displays characteristics of the new wave of temple architecture, amalgamating influences from various parts of India with a garish interior. Tea shops, flower sellers and other vendors in the small market outside the gates cater for a continuous flow of visitors.

New Vishwanth Temple

      Situated in the premises of Banaras Hindu University, a modern place of worship planned by Pandit Malviya and built by the Birlas. Open to all, irrespective of caste or creed.

Alamgir Mosque

      An amalgamation of Hindu - Muslim religious sentiments, this mosque is also known as "Beni Madhav Ka Darera".

Ram Nagar Fort And Museum

      The residence of the Maharajali of Varanasi, Ramnagar Fort, looks down upon the Ganges not far south of the Asi Ghat. The best views of the fortifications - especially impressive in late afternoon - are to be had from the other side of the river, which is reached by a road heading south from the BHU area and over a rickety pontoon bridge. During the monsoon the bridge is dismaniled and replaced by a ferry, still preferable to the long main road that crosses the main Malaviya bridge in the north before heading down the eastern bank of the river.

      Inside, the fort bears testimony to the wealth of the Maharajah and his continuing influence. A dusty and poorly kept museum (daily 9am-noon & 2-Spin; Rs3) provides glimpses of a decadent past: horse-drawn carriages, old motor cars, palanquins, gilded and ornate silver howdahs (elephant seats), hookaha, costumes and old silk in a sorry state are all part of the collection, along with an armoury, a collection of minute ivory carvings, an astronomical clock and hunting trophies. Some visitors have reported having tea with the affable Maliarajah after chance encounters.

      Across the courtyard, a section is devoted to the Ram Ula procession and festivities, had during Dussehra (Oct). Varanasi is renowned for its Rain Lila, during which episodes from the Ramayana are re-enacted throughout the city and the Maharajali sponsors three weeks of elaborate celebrations.

      A 17th - century fort, Ram Nagar is the home of the Maharaja of Banaras,Personal collection of the Royal Family housed in the Ramnagar Museum The museum’s collection includes of interesting vintage silver and brocade palanquins, howdahs, a replica of the royal bed and an armoury of swords and guns. (open 10 AM. to 5 PM) Ramnagar is also very famous for its unique Ram Lila.Museum entry fee for Rs 4 per head

      Other places of interest at Varanasi include Bharat Mata Temple, Annapurna Temple, Manmandir, Sankat Mochan Temple etc.


Hotel Taj Ganges, Nadesar Palace Grounds, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2345100-118, Fax : (0542)2348067

Hotel Varanasi Ashok ( ITDC) , The Mall, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2346020 - 30 Fax : (0542)2348089

Hotel Clarks Varanasi, The Mall, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2348501-10 , Fax : (0542)2348186

Hotel Hindustan International, C-12/3, Maldahia. Ph : (0542)2351484-90, Fax : (0542)352374

Hotel De Paris, The Mall, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2346601-8

Hotel Diamond, Bhelupur. Ph : (0542)2310696 - 700

Hotel ideal Tops, The Mall. Ph : (0542)2348091 - 92

Hotel Pallavi International, Hathwa Market, Chetganj. Ph : (0542)2356939 - 43, Fax : 2322943

Hotel Ganges View, Assi Ghat. Ph : (0542)2313218

Hotel India, 59 Patel Nagar, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2342912, Fax : (0542)234832

Hotel Malti, V.M Road Ph: (0542)2351395

Radiant YMCA Tourist Hostel, 28 A, Sampoornanand Nagar, Mahmoorganj Sigra road. Ph : (0542)2363928, Fax : (0542)2320676,
E-mail :
UP Tourism Accommodation

Tourist Bungalow, Parade Kothi, Opp. Cantt Railway Station. Ph : (0542)243413


Varanasi various restaurants serve a variety of cuisine continental, Chinese, Indian and of course, the traditional Mughlai.

Mandarin Restaurant, Lahurabir.

Shahi Restaurant, near Rathyatra Crossing.

Yelchico Bar & Restaurant, Godaulia.

Amrapali, D-58/9 Varanasi. Ph : (0542)2354161

Ashiyana Restaurant, Varuna Bridge, Clark Road. Ph : (0542)2343264

Hilarious Restaurant, 20/51, Clark Road, Varuna Bridge. Ph : (0542)2348670

Temple Restaurant/Gangotri Restaurant, Dashashwamedha Road. Ph : (0542)2321097

Haveli Restaurant, The Mall, Cantt. Ph : (0542)2348250-53


      Varanasi is famous for its silk weaving, and Banarasi silks are a part of every girl’s wedding trousseau. Banaras Brocades are prized the world over. Brassware, copperware, wooden and clay toys and exquisite gold jewellery are some of the other craft the city is famous for. The hand - knotted carpets of Mirzapur and musical instruments are among the other shopping attractions. Banaras is also famous for its ‘ Langda Aam’, a variety of mangoes available in the summer. Betel leaf is also a specialty. The main shopping areas are Chowk, Vishwanath Gali, Thatheri bazaar, Lahurabir, Godoulia , Dashswamedh Gali and Golghar.

With hustlers and rickshaw drivers keen to drag tourists into shops offering commission, shopping in Varanasi can be a nightmare but its worth seeking out the city's rich Silk weaving and brasswork. The best areas to browse are the Thatheri Bazaar (for brass), Jnana Vapi and the Vishwanatha Gall with its Temple Bazaar (for silk brocade and jewellery). State run emporia in Godaulia, lahurabir and the Chowk - the three Handlooms outlets at Lahurabir, Nadesar and Neechi Bag, and Mahatex in Godaulia - of fixed prices and assured quality. Housed in a former palace opposite the Taj Hotel, Cantt, the CIE has a large and impressive selection but, despite its official-sounding name, is outrageously expensive Kashmiri-run chain aimed exclusively at the fivestar market.

Sales pitches tend to become more aggressive when it comes to silk, and you need be wary of the hard-sell. Qazi Sadullahpura, near Chhavi Mahal Cinema, lies at the heart of a fascinating Muslim neighbourhood devoted to the production of silk. Upica, the government-run emporium has the advantage of fixed prices, with outlets at Godaulia opposite the Taj Hotel, Cantt. Handloom House, D64/132K Sigra, another government sponsored chain, is the best and safest place to buy silk with a modern showroom although the sales staff appear disorganized. For tailoring, try Paraslakshmi Exports, Chandrika Colony Sigra (ph: 361496), a silk business providing a good and prompt service; they'll deliver to your hotel, and also offer ready-made waistcoats and boxer shorts.

Souvenir and Shops
1 M/s Bhagwan Leela Sports, 41-Sindhu Nagar Colony, Sigra, Varanasi..
2 M/s Mohan Silk Store, D-5/154, Vishvanath Gali, Varanasi.
3 M/s Bhagwan  Store, D-10/3, Vishvanath Gali, Varanasi.
4 M/s J. R. Ivory, Arts & Curios, D-20, Vishvanath Gali, Varanasi.
5 M/s Chaudhari Brothers, Thatheri Bazar, Varanasi
6 M/s Mahalaxmi Sari House, 10, Chandrika Colony, Sigra, Varanasi.
7 M/s Bhagwan Silks, S-10/86, Sarnath, Varanasi.
8 M/s Mehrotra SSilk Factory, S. C. - 21/72, Englishia Line, Varanasi.
Post Office & Telegraph

Vishweshwar Ganj. Ph : (0542)2331398


State Bank of India, Cantt, Banaras Hindu University.
Indian Overseas Bank, Lahurabir.
Bank of Baroda, Godoulia.
Canara Bank, Nichibagh.
Andhra Bank, Godoulia.
Allahabad Bank, Nadesar and Chowk.
Central Bank of India, Chowk.

The Banaras State Bank, Luxa.


Shiv Prasad Gupta Hospital, Kabir Chaura. Ph:(0542)333723

Sir Sundar Lal Hospital B.H.U. Ph :(0542)2312542-45

Rajkiya Hospital, Shivpur . Ph : (0542)2382226

Hindu Seva Sadan , Chowk . Ph : (0542)2352143

Mata Anand Mai Hospital, Bhadaini. Ph : (0542)2310592

Ram Krishna Mission Hospital, Luxa. Ph : (0542)2321727

Marwari Hospital , Godoulia. Ph : (0542)2321456

Cancer Institute, N.E. Railway Lahartara. Ph : (0542)2425338

Tourist Info

UP Government Tourist Office, Parade Kothi, Cantt. Ph: 2341162

UP Government Tourist Information Counter, Cantt. Railway Station, Varanasi, Near Enquiry Office, Main Hall. Ph : 2346370

Government of India Tourist Office, 15 B The Mall, Cantt, Varanasi. Ph : 2343744

Government of India Tourist Information Counter, Babatpur Airport.

Bihar State Tourist Office, Englishiya Market, Sher Shah Suri Marg, Cantt. Ph : 2343821


Indian Airlines. Ph : 2345959, 2348637.

Air India. Ph : 2346326, 2346457


Varanasi Railway Station, Ph : 131, 132, 133

Mughal Sarai Railway Station, Ph : 92-255703, 255782



40 Km. Chunar has an immense fort overlooking the Ganga. This place has been the scene of battles since 1540, when Sher Shah took it from Humayun. Akbar recaptured it in 1575. In the mid - 18th century it was appropriated by Awadh and subsequently, the British. The fort has a sun - dial and a huge well, and affords a splendid view of the Ganga.

Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary

      70 km from Varanasi are the forests of Chandraprabha, within which are the Rajdari and Devdari Waterfalls. A beautiful secluded spot for a picnic.


      75 km. The famous temple of Vindhyavasini Devi, Ashtabhuja Devi and Kalikhoh are the major attractions.

Kaimoor Wildlife Sanctuary

      130 km. Spread over an area of 500 sq. km, the sanctuary has a variety of wildlife. The Mukha waterfall is a tourist attraction. Other excursions include Jaunpur ( 58 km, See Index), Allahabad (128 km, see Index) and the Vindham and Chachai falls


      Varanasi or Kashi, i.e. the City of Spiritual Light is considered to be one of the oldest living cities in the world.

      The glorious traditions and mythological legacy of this shining city are virtually unrivalled. 

      Varanasi is a multifaceted city, that is why it offers a breathtaking experience to every visitor. The rays of the dawn shimmering across the mother Ganga….the high banks, the temples and shrines…soul steering hymns and mantras along with the fragrance of incense filling the air … the refreshing dip in the holy water gently splashing at the magnificent ‘Ghats’ …and a rich tapestry of music, arts, crafts & education… truly this is the city where experience and discovery reach the ultimate bliss. 

      This city is also reputed for its schools of dance & music, arts, silk and carpet industries and handicrafts.

      A row of ghats, temples and the revered neighbourhood of Sarnath have added manifold glory to this city.

      Keeping in view the importance of Varanasi, the Department of Tourism, Uttar Pradesh organises Ganga Mahotsav here every year.

Ganga Mahotsav

      Ganga mahotsav…..a festival only once of its kind, certainly doubles the attraction of this city of temples, Ghats and traditions.

      As classical music fills the atmosphere, a mystique seems to envelop the environs awating a mood both celestial and soulful. The classical music rendered by maestros indeed imparts an unforgettable flavour.

      This year, the attraction of the five-day-long Ganga Mahotsav with its message of faith and culture, will increase with the daily Shilp Mela and the unique Dev Deepawali with innumerable ‘Diyas’ or earthen lamps in chain, lit by devotees and sent floating down the river on the full moon night of Kartik on the 11th of Nov. 2000, in a spectacle both mystical and heart winning.

Treatment Available
Tourist Attraction
Tourist Attraction
Dudhwa National Park
Fatehpur Sikri

Vishvanath Temple

Couryard Of Shriji Temple, Barsana

A Shiva Linga

Sanskrit College

Women Offering Prayers At The Ghats

Kashi Karvat Temple

women Worshiping At The Ghat Of Banaras

Durga Mother Of The Universe As Kali

Varanasi Ghat

The Ghats

A Gangajal Container

Dev Deepavali

Border Of A Banaras Saree

A Large Loom Set Up At Home.

A Banarsi Silk Saree

Sun Rays Shimmering Across The Ganges

Evening Aarti At Kashi Vishwanath Temple

Vishvanath Temple

Couryard Of Shriji Temple, Barsana

A Shiva Linga

Sanskrit College

Women Offering Prayers At The Ghats

Kashi Karvat Temple

women Worshiping At The Ghat Of Banaras

Durga Mother Of The Universe As Kali

Varanasi Ghat

The Ghats

A Gangajal Container

Dev Deepavali

Border Of A Banaras Saree

A Large Loom Set Up At Home.

A Banarsi Silk Saree

Sun Rays Shimmering Across The Ganges

Evening Aarti At Kashi Vishwanath Temple

Vishvanath Temple

Couryard Of Shriji Temple, Barsana

A Shiva Linga

Sanskrit College

Women Offering Prayers At The Ghats

Kashi Karvat Temple

women Worshiping At The Ghat Of Banaras

Durga Mother Of The Universe As Kali

Varanasi Ghat

The Ghats

A Gangajal Container

Dev Deepavali

Border Of A Banaras Saree

A Large Loom Set Up At Home.

A Banarsi Silk Saree

Sun Rays Shimmering Across The Ganges

Evening Aarti At Kashi Vishwanath Temple

Vishvanath Temple

Couryard Of Shriji Temple, Barsana

A Shiva Linga

Sanskrit College

Women Offering Prayers At The Ghats

Kashi Karvat Temple

women Worshiping At The Ghat Of Banaras

Durga Mother Of The Universe As Kali

Varanasi Ghat

The Ghats

A Gangajal Container

Dev Deepavali

Border Of A Banaras Saree

A Large Loom Set Up At Home.
Religious Places